continual

continual, continuous
1. Continual is the older word (14c), and once had all the meanings it now (since the mid-19c) shares with continuous (17c). Fowler (1926) expressed the current distinction somewhat cryptically as follows: ‘That is -al which either is always going on or occurs at short intervals and never comes (or is regarded as never coming) to an end. That is -ous in which no break occurs between the beginning and the (not necessarily or even presumably long-deferred) end.’
2. Continuous is used in physical contexts (such as lines, roads, etc.) and is preferred in technical contexts (e.g. continuous assessment / continuous playback / continuous stationery). The other principal use is with reference to time: continuous here means ‘going on uninterrupted’ whereas continual means ‘constantly or frequently recurring’. The following examples show how difficult it is to keep the two meanings apart:

• The correspondence between the two men was continuous throughout the next few months —V. Brome, 1978

• The 1840s were years of continuous self-education for Philip Henry Gosse —A. Thwaite, 1984

• The house and garden had seen their best days, and the decline was now continual, from season to season —R. Frame, 1986

• His son was a continual source of amusement and delight to him —E. Blair, 1990

• He singled out two big issues that should be addressed: ‘The first is the continual underfunding of road and rail infrastructure.’ —Lloyd's List, 2006.

Note that other words are sometimes preferable, e.g. (in place of continual) constant, habitual, intermittent, recurrent, repeated, and (in place of continuous) ceaseless, constant, incessant, unbroken, uninterrupted. Note also that constant can be used to mean both continual and continuous.
3. Of the corresponding adverbs, continually (14c) is older by far than continuously (17c). Here, for some reason, the current distinction is clearer to see; continually can be defined as ‘repeatedly; again and again’ and continuously as ‘without interruption’:

• This lost energy must be continuously supplied by the engines —C. E. Dole, 1971

• He said that the business of the court…was being continually held up by irrelevancies —J. B. Morton, 1974

• The black coat had lost its warmth and he shivered continually —J. M. Coetzee, 1983

• Clinical governance requires that the quality of medical care be continuously monitored —Bath Chronicle, 2001.

In the following example, continuously seems to be wrongly used for continually:

• The Chinese officials also continuously stated that they could put a stop to inflation at any time —P. Lowe, 1989.


Modern English usage. 2014.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • continual — continual, continuous, constant, incessant, unremitting, perpetual, perennial are comparable when meaning characterized by continued occurrence or recurrence over a relatively long period of time. Continual implies a close or unceasing succession …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Continual — Con*tin u*al, a. [OE. continuel, F. continuel. See {Continue}.] 1. Proceeding without interruption or cesstaion; continuous; unceasing; lasting; abiding. [1913 Webster] He that is of a merry heart hath a continual feast. Prov. xv. 15. [1913… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • continual — [kən tin′yo͞o əl] adj. [ME continuel < OFr < L continuus: see CONTINUE] 1. happening over and over again; repeated often; going on in rapid succession 2. going on uninterruptedly; continuous continually adv. SYN. CONTINUAL applies to that… …   English World dictionary

  • continual — early 14c., continuell, from O.Fr. continuel (12c.), from L. continuus (see CONTINUE (Cf. continue)). That which is continual is that which is either always going on or recurs at short intervals and never comes to an end; that which is CONTINUOUS …   Etymology dictionary

  • continual — I (connected) adjective constant, constantly recurring, continued, continuing, continuus, nonstop, of regular recurrence, perennial, persistent, proceeding without cessation, proceeding without interruption, regular, steadfast, steady, sustained …   Law dictionary

  • continual — [adj] constant, incessant aeonian, around the clock, ceaseless, connected, consecutive, continuous, dateless, endless, enduring, eternal, everlasting, frequent, interminable, oftrepeated, permanent, perpetual, persistent, persisting, recurrent,… …   New thesaurus

  • continual — ► ADJECTIVE 1) constantly or frequently occurring. 2) having no interruptions. DERIVATIVES continually adverb …   English terms dictionary

  • continual — con|tin|u|al [kənˈtınjuəl] adj [only before noun] 1.) continuing for a long time without stopping ▪ five weeks of continual rain ▪ the Japanese business philosophy of continual improvement 2.) repeated many times, often in a way that is harmful… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • continual — adjective 1 continuing for a long time without stopping: five weeks of continual rain | The hostages lived in continual fear of violent death. 2 repeated often and over a long period of time; frequent: The continual trips to my mother s house… …   Longman dictionary of contemporary English

  • continual — adjective a service disrupted by continual breakdowns Syn: frequent, repeated, recurrent, recurring, intermittent, regular Ant: occasional, sporadic •• continual, continuous Continual = frequently recurring; intermittent e.g.: And [the police… …   Thesaurus of popular words

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